Stephen Blank

Stephen Blank is currently a Senior Fellow for Russia at the American Foreign Policy Council.  Previously, he was a Professor of National Security for 24 years at the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.  Blank’s expertise covers the entire Russian and post-Soviet region, and he has also written extensively on defense strategy, arms control, information warfare, energy issues, U.S. foreign and defense policy, and European as well as Asian security.

Blank is currently writing a book on Russian policy in East Asia and is the author of numerous publications.  He participates frequently at professional conferences throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia.  Prior to joining the Army, he taught at the University of California, Riverside, and the University of Texas, San Antonio.  He was also a Professor of National Security Studies at the U.S. Air War College’s Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education.

Emerson T. Brooking

Emerson Brooking is a Resident Fellow at the Atlantic Council in the Digital Forensic Research Lab.  Among other objectives, the mission of the Digital Forensic Research Lab is “to identify, expose, and explain disinformation where and when it occurs using open source research.”

He examines the intersection of social media and conflict, considering how information manipulation shapes broader trends within international security.  In 2018, he co-authored a book entitled LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media, which was named by Foreign Affairs as one of its books of the year.  Brooking has also published in The AtlanticForeign AffairsWIRED, and Rolling Stone.

Prior to joining the Atlantic Council, Brooking was a Research Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.  In addition, he has advised the National Security Council, Joint Staff, and Intelligence Community on disinformation and electoral security.  In 2019, Forbes named Brooking as one of its “Forbes 30 Under 30” for law and policy.

Fritz W. Ermarth 

Fritz Ermarth worked for 25 years at the CIA (1973–1998), serving in a number of capacities, including Chairman of the National Intelligence Council, National Intelligence Officer for the USSR and East Europe, and Director of the Strategic Evaluation Center.  He has received both the Distinguished Intelligence Medal and the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal.  In addition, Ermarth served as Special Assistant to President Ronald Reagan.

Ermarth worked at the RAND Corporation in the late 1960s and the 1970s, and returned to RAND for a sabbatical year in 1994 while still employed at the CIA.  In 2002, he became the Director of National Security Programs at the Nixon Center, now known as the Center for National Interest.  Ermarth then became a part-time senior analyst for the Strategies Group at Science Applications International Corporation.

Robert S. Gelbard

After serving in the Peace Corps in Bolivia from 1964 to 1966, Robert Gelbard joined the Foreign Service in 1967.  He then spent 35 years as a diplomat in the State Department, with several senior policy positions, including Ambassador to Indonesia and Bolivia, President Clinton’s Special Envoy to the Balkans, and Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, where he managed U.S. counterterrorism policy.

Gelbard has received a Presidential Meritorious Award, the State Department’s Superior Honor Award, and the State Department’s Meritorious Honor Award, and in 2002 he received the State Department’s Distinguished Service Award, its highest decoration.

Currently, Gelbard serves on the Board of Directors at Foreign Policy for America and the Atlantic Council as well as manages Gelbard International Consulting.

David Glancy

David Glancy is the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Chair of International Communication and Professor of Strategy and Statecraft at The Institute of World Politics.  Previously, he was an Associate with Booz Allen Hamilton, where he worked on education technology issues with the National Intelligence University.  

In addition, Glancy has held positions at the State Department and the Defense Department.  At the State Department, he served as a Senior Advisor for Political-Military Affairs and was responsible for handling a number of high-profile issues (coalition political-military efforts in Iraq, issues related to the U.S. global military posture, piracy off the coast of Somalia).  At the Defense Department, Glancy was a policy analyst and advisor at the Office of the Secretary of Defense.  During his time at the Pentagon, he served as the Director of the Global War on Terrorism Communications Group.

Roy Godson

Roy Godson is currently a Senior Fellow in National Security Affairs at the American Foreign Policy Council.   Now with emeritus status, he was a Professor of Government at Georgetown University for more than 40 years, specializing in security studies and international relations.  From 1993 to 2015, he was president of the National Strategy Information Center. 

Godson has served as a consultant to the U.S. National Security Council, the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, and related agencies of the U.S. government, as well as international organizations, including the Organization of American States and the United Nations.

Godson has authored/coauthored several books, including the first academic study of Soviet active measures, Dezinformatsia.  He is currently researching strategic opportunities to further U.S. ideals and interests and to develop political and cultural capabilities in the United States and abroad to mitigate and manage anticipated global challenges.

Brian Michael Jenkins

Brian Michael Jenkins presently serves as the Senior Advisor to the President of the RAND Corporation and last year was recognized for his 50-year association with the institution.  For 17 years, he ran RAND’s Political Science Department and directed its research on political violence.  He is also the Director of the National Transportation Security Center at the Mineta Transportation Institute. 

Throughout his career, Jenkins has served on a number of government commissions and panels, including the Long Commission, Inman Panel, Presidential Commission on Aviation Security and Terrorism (advisor), White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, and National Commission on Terrorism (advisor). 

From 1989 to 1998, Jenkins was the Deputy Chairman of Kroll Associates and was responsible for the firm’s crisis-management practice, directing worldwide responses to kidnapping and extortion cases. 

A. Ross Johnson

Ross Johnson is a History and Public Policy Fellow at the Wilson Center and Senior Advisor to the President of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.  His current projects are Uses and Misuses of Social Media, Optimizing U.S.G. Global Media, and Geopolitics of the Western Balkans.  Previously, Johnson was director of RFE, director of the RFE/RL Research Institute, Counselor and Acting President of RFE/RL, research fellow at the Hoover Institution, and senior staff member at the RAND Corporation specializing in Soviet and East European security issues.  

Johnson has published widely. His publications include “Managing Media Influence Operations; Lessons from Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty,” International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence (2018); Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty; the CIA Years and Beyond (2010); and numerous RAND reports (1969–1989).

He was honored for service at RFE with the Laurel Award from the prime minister of Poland and the Meritorious Service to Polish Culture award from the Polish minister of culture.

John Lenczowski

John Lenczowski is the founder and president of The Institute of World Politics (IWP), a Washington-based graduate school focused on national security and international affairs.  In the 1980s, he served in the State Department with the Bureau of European Affairs and as Special Advisor to Under Secretary for Political Affairs Lawrence Eagleburger.  Lenczowski was also Director of European and Soviet Affairs at the National Security Council, serving as principal Soviet affairs adviser to President Ronald Reagan.

In addition to being an adjunct professor at Georgetown University for 15 years, Lenczowski has been associated with several academic and research institutions, including the University of Maryland, American Enterprise Institute, Ethics and Public Policy Center, Council for Inter-American Security, and International Freedom Foundation.  He has authored four books.

David Major

David Major is a retired FBI Supervisory Special Agent with expertise in counterintelligence and counterterrorism.  He served in various FBI field offices, as well as two assignments at FBI Headquarters in the Security Office, the Counterintelligence Division, and the Inspection office.  Major was named by the FBI to be its first official assigned to the National Security Council as a staff officer.  He served as the Director, Intelligence and Counterintelligence Programs, and briefed and advised President Ronald Reagan on counterintelligence matters, as well as security policy and programs.  Major was an original member of the Active Measures Working Group.

Upon retiring from the FBI, Major founded the Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies, which provides counterintelligence, counterterrorism, investigative skills, and security training for the government, academic, and corporate sectors, teaching more than 150,000 students.

Robert McCreight

Robert McCreight is a senior consultant with Global Concepts & Communications, LLC. He has more than 35 years of experience in the State Department, working on various topics, including global security, arms control, intelligence operations, biowarfare, nuclear weaponry, counterterrorism, emergency humanitarian missions, and Political/Military (POLMIL) affairs.  He has completed special projects for the National Security Council and the White House involving counterterrorism and homeland security.

McCreight’s work includes development of Homeland Security Directives for the White House, collaborative terrorism research involving Russian Special Forces, and campaign planning for major disasters and humanitarian crises.  He also served 27 years concurrently in the U.S. military working in intelligence, Psychological Operations (PSYOP), civil affairs, and logistics.

Caitlin Schindler

Caitlin Schindler is currently a research professor at The Institute of World Politics (IWP).  Her research looks at the origins of American public diplomacy from 1776 through 1948, with the aim of identifying patterns and techniques of American public diplomacy that may be integrated into present-day public diplomacy practice.

Schindler earned an MA in Strategic Intelligence from IWP and a PhD from the University of Leeds.  She has worked as an executive officer for a U.S. defense contractor supporting various government customers, mainly in counterterrorism policy and operations.  Schindler is focusing on strategic communications in statecraft.

Michael J. Sulick

Michael Sulick is currently a consultant on international affairs and insider threats.  In government, he had a 28-year career at the CIA, retiring in 2010 as Director of the National Clandestine Service (NCS).  As Director NCS, Sulick was responsible for coordinating the espionage activities of the U.S. Intelligence Community and managing global covert operations on terrorism, weapons proliferation, and regional and country-specific issues.

In addition to his work at NCS, Sulick held a number of other senior positions, both at CIA headquarters and overseas, including Chief of CIA counterintelligence and Chief of the Central Eurasian Division.  In 1991, he was the first CIA officer to enter the Soviet Union to forge new relationships with the intelligence services of a newly independent former Soviet republic.  He has had two books published by Georgetown University Press:  American Spies and Spying in America.


Arnold L. Horelick

Arnold Horelick is a specialist on Russian foreign policy and military strategy, with most of his career being associated with the RAND Corporation.  He was RAND’s first corporate fellow and was the founding Director of the RAND/UCLA Center for the Study of Soviet International Behavior, teaching both at the RAND Graduate School and at UCLA.  Horelick was a professor of political science at UCLA.

From 1977 to 1980, Horelick served as the CIA’s National Intelligence Officer for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and was awarded the CIA’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal upon leaving government service.  Prior to his retirement, Horelick served for two years as Director of the Russian and Eurasian program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Note:  No workshop organizer, participant or advisor received any compensation – in any form – for their time or effort related to this workshop or the resulting summary report.  However, two participants residing outside the Washington area had their travel and accommodation expenses paid.